This sounds like a very easy term to figure out because this term makes sense. A static website is a website that never changes. Like this website that you're looking at right now is a static website. If I don't touch this website then nothing will ever change. On the other hand, dyamic pages can run by themselves. You can publish an article and the developers have made code so that it shows up on the home page.
If you ever want to have a dynamic website then your going to use these two words on a daily basis. First lets start with a CDN, or Content Delivery Network. This is the equivilant of using your Math Notebook while doing homework. In simple terms, a CDN is a way for web developers to make websites faster, while usually compromising control over the website and speed at which the website is built. A CMS is a CDN but on steriods. A CMS, Content Management System, is a way of web developers to have a website that they have full control ever. They can store data, like Amazon orders, while also having the power to change anything they want. A CMS is critical for scalability, a website that can serve everyone, as if you don't have control over a big website and something bad happens, like you got hacked, then you can't really fix anything :(
Hey look this is what I do! If you want a website to have a CMS and have the flexibility of a CDN then you can use ASP.NET. ASP stands for Active Server Pages, basically a dynamic page. The only difference is that you can individually choose what each page containes, and if you want then completely customize it. With a Dynamic CMS website, you wouldn't be able to that.
Responsive design is the artform of creating webpages that work on a vast amount of devices, and customizing the expierence of each one. For example, let's say I have a page that sells food. If my customers saw really big text and none of it fit on the screen they may not want to order because they don't know if they should be on that spcific page, or if it's safe to order because they might get hacked or something.
These are other words that you might need to start using if you want to become a web developer. HTML is just the umbrella of web development, also known as Hyper Text Markup Language. When you refer to just HTML you refer to the act of building a website, not how to build a website. Well thats were HTML5 comes in. The modern web uses HTML 5 and 4. Why use an older version of something on a big website? Well, HTML 5 is very new and has new features like inline video and sound! HTML4 is still used because it doesn't really lack anything MAJOR from HTML5 and since it's older, it has more help guides and recources for you to learn.